T – Touristic
Road itineraries and clear paths; climbings not higher than 1000m; basic trip equipment.
E – Excursion
Longer itineraries and not always on visible paths, they can include areas without marks or rocky and steeper areas with not really exposed passages, sometimes they’re even equipped; appropriate mountain equipment request.
EE – Expert Hikers
Itineraries that may requie easy climbings on rocks, with exposure problems, passages on ice fields and crossings of dangerous areas; appropriate equipment for individual security request.
EEA – Expert Hikers with Equipment
Itineraries on equipped pathways wherte the frequence of the equipment, the physical effort and the significant exposure require the use of equipment for the self-insurance and the possible mutual insurance.
HIKING DIFFICULTIES (SWITZERLAND)
T1 – Hike
Well-trodden path. When reported according to standards FSS: yellow.
Flat ground or slightly inclined. No danger of vulnerable fall.
Requirements: nothing, sneakers allowed. Simple orientation, viable without topographic map.
T2 – Mountain Hike
Clear path with regular climbs.
When reported according to standards FSS: white-red-white.
The ground is sometimes steep. Danger of vulnerable falls not excluded.
Requirements: sure step, hiking boots recommended. Basic orientation skills.
T3 – Intense Mountain Hike
Visible marks on the ground, some exposed passages can be secured with ropes and chains, and if necessary you have to use your hands to maintain the balance. When reported according to standards FSS: white-red-white.
Single passages with danger of vulnerable falls, rock formations, grassy sides without marks and dusted with rocks.
Requirements: sure step, good hiking boots. Discreet orientation skills. Basic knowledge about alpine environment.
T4 – Alpine Environment
Not always visible path, itinerary sometimes without marks, sometimes you’ll need the use of the hands for the progression.
When reported according to standards FSS: white-blu-white.
Quite exposed ground, grassy sides and dusted with rocks, easy icy areas without snow.
Requirements: familiarity with exposed grounds, strong biking boots. Good orientation and ground assessment skills. Knowledge about alpine environment
T5 – Intense Alpine Itinerary
Usually without marks, single simple climb passages until 2nd degree.
When reported according to standards FSS: white-blu-white.
Intense and exposed ground, steep grassy sides and dusted with rocks, low-risk icy areas.
Requirements: good biking boots. Excellent orientation and sure ground assessment skills. Good knowledge about alpine environment and basic skills about the use of ax and ropes.
T6 – Difficult Alpine Itinerary
Usually without marks, single climb passages until 2nd degree. Usually it isn’t reported. Very exposed ground, delicate grassy and rocky sides, icy areas with slippage risk.
Requirements: excellent orientation skills. Excellent knowledge about alpine environment and familiarity with alpine environment.
MOUNTAINEERING DIFFICULTIES – UIAA levels (Welzenbach)
I – Easy
It’s the easiest kind of climbing, you need to choose the foot support and you’ll often use your hands as handholds, but just to maintain the balance.
II – Little Difficult
It requires the moving of one limb at a time and a correct thrust of the movements. There are abundant handholds and supports.
III – Quite Difficult
The rocky structure is steep or even vertical, handholds and supports are less abundant and they might requeer the use of physical strenght. The passages are not mandatory yet.
IV – Difficult
Handholds and supports are more unusual and smaller, the paths require a good technique and a certain level of practice.
V – Really Difficult
Handholds and supports are unusual and small, the climbing requires a good technique and physical effort. It is usually required a prior examination of the passage.
VI – Extremely Difficult
Handholds and supports are small and they require a particolar combination of movements because of their disposal. The rocky structure can force to a delicate climbing against the mountain or to an exhausting one over a cliff. It requires practice and a strong effort with hands and arms.
MOUNTAINEERING DIFFICULTIES – French levels
Easy path, without big difficulties.
Little difficult, it shows some small difficulties over rock and snow, icy slopes up to 95°-105°F.
Quite difficult, mountaineering difficulties on rock and ice, icy slopes up to 105° – 120°F.
Difficult, mountaineering difficulties on rock and ice, icy slopes up to 120° - 160°F.
Very difficult, huge mountaineering difficulties on rock and ice, ice up to 160° - 175°F.
Extremely difficult, extreme mountaineering difficulties on rock and ice, ice up to 195°F.
TYPES OF MOUNTAINEERING ASCENTS
Regular mountaineering ascent, it doesn’t require any equipment and it doesn’t face climbing passages, it shows rough areas and some exposed passages, rocks not over I/I+ level.
Rocky mountaineering ascent, it faces climbing passages over II level, it requires climbing equipment (rope, harness, carabiners, spikes and helmet), it requires experience and practice.
Icy and snowy mountaineering ascent, it faces slopes over 35°, icy ridges and canals, it requires climbing equipment (applicable on ice), it requires experience, assessment skills and practice.
CLIMBING DIFFICULTIES - Level and description
This is the easiest level of climbing. The hands use the handholds just to maintain the balance
It represents the beginning of the true climbing. It requires the moving of one limb at a time. There are numerous handholds and the supports.
The cliff is steeper and vertical, it requires the use of physical strenght.
There are less handholds and the supports and the path requires a good knowledg of climbing’s technique and practice.
The handholds and the supports are rare, the passages must be studied and the ascent becomes tiring.
The handholds and the supports are rare and smaller. The passages can require a forced sequence of movements.
The handholds and the supports are smaller and distant. The path requires a particular fingers’ strenght.
Constant training and practice are required for being able to face paths like these.
Training and practice required are almost professional.
X and XI
These are the most difficult climbing paths in the world.